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Mr. Gazzale's Science & Technology Page
General Science

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Home | Gen. Science Review Topics | H.Bio.2 Review Topics | Honors Histology Resources | H.Bio.1 Review Topics

Scientific Method:
 
1. State the problem.
2. Gather information related to the problem.  Think about it.
3.  Form a hypothesis (possible solution, educated guess).
4. Experiment to test your hypothesis.  The experiment will yield data that will either prove your hypothesis to be correct, in which case you have a conclusion.  Or the data will show your hypothesis to be incorrect, in which case you must gather more info, form a new hypothesis, test it by experiment, & so on until you reach a conclusion.
5. State your conclusion.
6. Verification.
 
Louis Pasteur stated, "chance favors only the mind that is prepared".  Review what this means.
 
Review the work of Sir Alexander Fleming.
 
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Metrics:
 
Basic Units: kilogram, meter, liter
 
Devices: Graduated cylinder, meter stick, balance
 
Prefixes: Kilo, centi, milli
 
Know: 1 ml = 1 cc, 1 meter = 39.4 inches
 
Larger to smaller units: move decimal to the right
Smaller to larger units: move decimal to the left
 
Review how you know how many places to move the decimal.
 
Mass - amount of matter in an objective, remains constant.
Weight - measure of the pull of gravity on an object, varies with the strength of the gravitational pull.
 
The Compound Light Microscope:
 
Ocular (eyepiece): 10x
 
Objectives: scanning - 4x
                   low power - 10x
                   high power - 40x
 
Diaphragm: adjusts the amount of light entering the slide. 2 types: disk & iris.
 
Revolving nosepiece: with objective attached.
 
Coarse adjustment knob: large, allows for initial focusing, use only with scanning objective.
 
Fine adjustment knob:  small, allows you to focus for the best possible image.
 
Stage - platform for slide.
 
Stage clips - hold the slide in place.
 
Arm, base, inclination joint.
 
Review:  magnification (apparent enlargement of the specimen), resolution (sharpness of the image), total magnification, field of view, why stain is added to specimens, & setting up the microscope properly.
 
Data Tables & Graphing:
 
Jargon - specialized vocabulary
 
Data - information
 
Data Table - way to organize data in columns, neat & readable.
 
Data Table - should have a title, variables, units, data, & ordered pairs.
 
Graph - picture of information in a data table. Has the same "parts" as a data table.
 
Horizontal Axis - goes left to right along the bottom of the graph.  Usually has time.
 
Vertical Axis - runs up & down along the left side of the graph.  Has the variable other than time.
 
Intersection - the crossing of two lines when graphing.
 
Data Point - place where two data lines cross or intersect.
 
Plotting - finding the data point for an ordered pair.
 
Intervals - an even spacing of the numbers along the axis of a graph.
 
Review line graph, circle (pie) graph, & multi-line graph.
 
When drawing a line graph:
 
use a pencil & a ruler & draw the horizontal axis along the bottom & the vertical axis to the left leaving room for writing the variable & units, space the intervals evenly, plot your points, connect the points to draw your line graph, & add your title.  Be neat!
 
Some genetics to consider:
 
Work of Gregor Mendel - garden peas
 
Alleles - alternate forms of a gene.  Dominant. Recessive.
 
Phenotype - physical characteristics of an organism.  Ex. tall.
 
Genotype - the genes that are present.  Ex. heterozygous tall
 
Heterozygous - one dominant & one recessive gene. Ex. Tt.
 
Homozygous - both genes are the same.  Ex. TT or tt.
 
Some human traits are controlled by more than one gene.  Ex. skin color.
 
Punnett Square
 
Hybrid
 
Monohybrid Cross
 
Genetic Engineering:  cloning, selective breeding, DNA fingerprinting. Human Genome Project.
 
Some things to consider concerning evolution:
 
Evolution - process whereby gradual changes occur in a species over time.
 
Natural Selection - individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive longer, reproduce more, & pass on their "good" traits to their offspring.
            > Involves overpopulation, variation, competition.
 
Adaptation - trait that helps an organism survive & reproduce.
 
Charles Darwin -  Think about his story: "Beagle", naturalist, Galapagos Islands, finches. Evolution by natural selection.
 
Fossil Record - "solid" evidence (bones, imprints) of organisms that lived in the distant past.  Incomplete - some fossils still buried, others were destroyed over time.
 
Extinct - Species without any living members.  Ex. T-Rex
 
Geologic Time Scale:  Calendar of Earth's history (we are focusing on living things)
 
> Earth forms - 4.6 billion years ago (bya)
> 1st. organisms (bacteria-like) in oceans - 3.5 bya
> Algae & fungi - 1 bya
> 1st. animals (jellyfish) - 600 million years ago (mya)
> Sea Animals (snails, clams) - 544 mya
> 1st. vertebrates (fish) - 505 mya
> 1st. land plants (moss) & animals (insects) - 438 mya
> Amphibians & ferns - 408 mya
> Early reptiles - 360 mya
> Seed plants common - 286 mya
> 1st. dinosaurs & reptile-like mammals - 245 mya
> 1st. birds - 208 mya
> 1st. flowering plants - 144 mya
> dinosaurs extinct - 67 mya
> 1st. primates - 66 mya
> 1st. humans - 1.6 mya
 
Think About Ecology A Bit:
 
Ecology - study of the relationships between organisms & their environment.
 
Biotic Factors - organisms.  Abiotic Factors - nonliving.
 
Species - a group of individuals that can mate & give rise to fertile offspring.
 
Population - Individuals of the same species, living in the same place, at the same time.
 
Community - All of the populations living in  a particular place at a certain time.
 
Ecosystem - an interacting system consisting of biotic factors & their abiotic environment.
 
Populations size influenced by:  Natality (birth rate), Mortality (death rate), Immigration, & Emigration. 
 
Limiting Factors (amt. of water, space, food, etc.) limit the size of a population.
 
Some interactions between organisms - fighting, hunting, escaping, mating, predation, mutualism (both benefit), commensalism (1 benefits, the other is unaffected), & parasitism (parasite lives on or in a host).
 
Estimating the size of a population by sampling.
 
Environmental Science - Chapter 2>  Think about:
 
Food Chain, Food Web: Ecologists study feeding patterns to study energy flow through an ecosystem.
 
Producer: autotroph, photosynthesis, plant.
Consumer: eater, herbivore, carnivore, omnivore.
Decomposers: Bacteria, recycle, nitrogen-fixing.
 
Not recycled in the ecosystem: energy (Sun's).
 
Cycles: Water (short, long), Nitrogen, Oxygen-Carbon.
 
Succession:  series of predictable changes that occur in an ecosytem over time.  Ex: pond ---> swamp--->grassland--->forest
 
Dispersal: movement of organisms from 1 area to another. Helped by water, wind, animals, Continental Drift (slow motion of blocks of the Earth's crust).  Limited by climate, competition, and physical barriers.
 
Biome: large-scale ecosystem with its characteristic climate & organims.  Ex: Mid-latitude Deciduous Forest, Boreal Forest (Taiga), Tundra, Tropical Rain Forest, Desert.
 
What is Life?
 
Characteristics of organisms: cellular, use energy, reproduce, respond to stimuli, grow, develop.
 
Needs of life: water, space, stable environment, energy.
 
Unicellular.  Multicellular. 
 
Autotrophs - make own food, photosynthesis.  Plants.
 
Heterotrophs - eaters, consumers.  Animals.
 
Abiogenesis: Spontaneous Generation - Life from non-life.
 
Biogenesis: Life from life.
 
Work of Redi & Pasteur.
 
Controlled Experiment:  perform 2 tests that are identical in all ways, except for 1 factor called the variable.
 
Classification, Viruses, Bacteria, Protists - Think about:
 
kingdom-phylum-class-order-family-genus-species
 
Carolus Linnaeus-Binomial System: 2 names
     Genus (capitalized) & species
 
6 kingdoms: Archeobacteria, Eubacteria, Protists, Fungi,
                             Plant, & Animal
 
Viruses: non-living: non-cellular, do not use energy, harmful - disease causing (pathogens), need Electron Microscope (EM) to see them, Lytic Cycle.
 
Bacteria: unicellular, Prokaryotic (no nucleus), 3 shapes: coccus - round, bacillus - rod, spirillum - spiral, Harmful: spoil food, cause disease,  Helpful: nitrofying bacteria, decomposition - recycling, antibiotics.
 
Protists: unicellur, Eukaryotic, Flagellates - have flagellum, Euglena, Sarcodinans - have pseudopodes (false feet), Ameba, Ciliates  - have cilia, Paramecium.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


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