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Honors Biology 1 Resources

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Home | Gen. Science Review Topics | H.Bio.2 Review Topics | Honors Histology Resources | H.Bio.1 Review Topics

The Scientific Method of Problem Solving:
 
1. State the problem.  Recognize that you do not understand something.
2. Gather information related to the problem, and think about it.
3. Form a hypothesis, which is an educated guess or a possible solution to your problem.
4.  Experiment to test your hypothesis.  Your experiment (review "controlled experiment" & "variables") will yield data which will do what for you?????
5.   State your conclusion.
6.   Verification.
 
Look over: Pasteur's "chance favors only the mind that is prepared", & the work of Sir Alexander Fleming & the methods he used when he discovered penicillin.
 
Also review: classifying, inferring, & modeling.
 
Characteristics of Living Things:
 
They are cellular (made out of protoplasm) & have a universal genetic code. 
 
They have a metabolism (sum of all the chem. reactions that occur in an organism), which includes: ingestion, digestion, respiration, etc.
 
They grow (increase in size) & develop (change over time).
 
They utilize energy, maintain homeostasis, respond to stimuli, & reproduce (Asexual,  Sexual).
 
Think about & be able to discuss: spontaneous generation (abiogeneis) & biogenesis, warmbloodedness & coldbloodedness, unicellular & multicellar.
 
They are diverse.
 
Metrics:
 
Basic Units: kilogram, meter, liter
 
Devices: Graduated cylinder, meter stick, balance
 
Prefixes: Kilo, centi, milli
 
Know: 1 ml = 1 cc, 1 meter = 39.4 inches
 
Larger to smaller units: move decimal to the right
Smaller to larger units: move decimal to the left
 
Review how you know how many places to move the decimal.
 
Mass - amount of matter in an objective, remains constant.
 
Weight - measure of the pull of gravity on an object, varies with the strength of the gravitational pull.
 
Parts & Use of A Compound Light Microscope
 
Ocular (eyepiece): 10x
 
Objectives: scanning - 4x
                   low power - 10x
                   high power - 40x
 
Diaphragm: adjusts the amount of light entering the slide. 2 types: disk & iris.
 
Revolving nosepiece: with objective attached.
 
Coarse adjustment knob: large, allows for initial focusing, use only with scanning objective.
 
Fine adjustment knob:  small, allows you to focus for the best possible image.
 
Stage - platform for slide.
 
Stage clips - hold the slide in place.
 
Arm, base, inclination joint.
 
Review:  magnification (apparent enlargement of the specimen), resolution (sharpness of the image), total magnification, field of view, why stain is added to specimens, & setting up the microscope properly.
 
Ecology:
 
Biotic Factors - living, Producers (autotrophs), Consumers (heterotrophs), & Decomposers (bacteria).
 
Food chain/Web - Producers, 1st. order consumers, 2nd. order consumers, and so on.
Herbivores, Carnivores, & Omnivores.  Terrestial & Aquatic.
 
Abiotic Factors: air, rocks, soil, water, etc.
 
Populations - Biotic Community - Ecosystems - Biomes (Desert, Mid-latitude Deciduous Forest, Tropical Rain Forest, etc).
 
Ecological Niche - Ecological Succession - Limiting Factors - Carrying Capacity - Energy Pyramid
 
Relationships: Predation, Parasitism, Commensalism, & Mutualism.
 
Population Density - Formula: D = N/S,  
 
Determiners of Population Size: Mortality, Natality, Emigration, & Immigration.
 
If trends continue, it is estimated the the human population of the US will double in the next 100 years.
 
Pollution:  Biodegradable & Non-biodegradable.  Air - Water - Land - Noise.
 
Greenhouse Effort (Role of carbon dioxide), Acid Rain (Sulfur Dioxide & Nitric Oxide), Endangered Species, & Ozone Depletion.
 
 
 
Microorganisms:
 
Abiogenesis - spontaneous generation: Life from non-life.  Work of Redi & Spallanzani.  Finally disproved by Louis Pasteur.
 
Biogenesis - Life from life.
 
Koch - Father of Microbiology.  Pasteur - practical applications.  Both used culture methods & microscopes.
 
Eubacteria - "true" bacteria.  Shapes: bacilli - rod, cocci - round, spirilla - spiral.  Strepto, staphlo, diplo.  Conditions for growth:  proper media, proper temperature, & darkness.  Incubator. 
 
Protists - Ciliates: have cilia. Paramecium.  Flagellates: have a flagellum.   Euglena.  Sarcodina: have pseudopodes (false feet).  Ameba. 
 
Viruses - Nucleic acids: either DNA or RNA, can not reproduce within their own group, but rather must enter & take over a living cell.  Lytic cycle. 
 
Cell Structure:
 
Cytoplasm - Protoplasm (semiliquid) between the cell & nuclear membranes. 
 
Plant Cell - has cell wall (cellulose, non-living), chloroplasts (photosynthesis), and large vacuoles (storage).
 
Animal Cell - has lysosome (lytic enzymes), centrosome (with 2 centrioles), and small or no vacuoles.
 
Cell Membrane - semipermeable, controls what enters & leaves the cell.
 
Nucleus - has chromatin (DNA & protein), DNA ---> Genes ---> Chromosomes.
 
Nucleolus - in nucleus, RNA
 
Ribosomes - free or attached to endoplasmic reticulum, protein synthesis.
 
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - transport
 
Mitochondria - "powerhouses", 96 % of energy.
 
Prokaryotic Cell - "primitive", no nucleus, bacteria & blue-green algae.
 
Eukaryotic Cell - "true", has nucleus, human.
 
Cell Function - Physiology
 
Organelles - Reminders:
 
  Nucleus - controls cells, DNA
  Ribosomes - protein synthesis
  Chloroplasts - photosynthesis
  Mitochondria - powerhouses, oxidize glucose
               yeilding energy
  ER - transport
  Cell Membrane - semipermeable, controls
              what enters & leaves the cell
  Vacuoles - store food or water
  Golgi Apparatus - secretes glycoproteins
 
Passive Transport:
 
  Cell does not use its own energy to move materials in or out.
 
  Diffusion - movement of molecules from a higher to a lower concentration, due to the constant random motion of the molecules themselves.
 
  Osmosis - diffusion of water molecules only through a semipermeable membrane.
 
Active Transport:
 
  Cell uses its own energy to move molecules in or out, even against the concentration gradient.
 
  Pinocytosis & Phagocytosis
 
Cell Division:
 
Mitosis - exact doubling & division of the nucleus, resulting in 2 identical nuclei in 1 cell.
 
   Interphase - "resting", DNA replicates.
 
   Prophase - In animal cell, centrosome splits into 2 centrioles, which move to opposite sides of the cell with spindle fibers running from 1 to the other.  Chromosome pairs (chromatids) are visible & are attached to each other & to the spindle by centromeres.  Nucleus & nucleolus have disappeared.
 
  Metaphase - chromosome pairs are lined up at the equatorial plate.
 
  Anaphase - chromosome pairs split, with 1 member of each pair going towards 1 centriole, & the other member going towards the other centriole.
 
  Telophase - nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes (which become diffuse & form chromatin), nucleolus reappears, you end up with 2 identical nuclei in the 1 cell.
 
Cytokinesis - the splitting of the cytoplasm after mitosis, forming the 2 "daughter cells".
 
Energy, Life, & Biochemistry -think about:
 
Energy is stored in the chemical bonds between molecules.  When you split the bonds, you release the energy.
 
In a cell, energy is stored in ATP.  Review the ATP-ADP cycle.
 
A catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction, allowing it to occur at a lower temperature, without permanently being changed itself.  A biological catalyst is an enzyme
 
Lock & Key Theory of Enzyme Action - just as a particular key is needed to fit into & open a certain lock, you need a specific enzyme to react with a particular substrate.
 
Photosynthesis: in chloroplasts.
 
General equation of photosynthesis.
 
Light Reaction:  yields ATP, oxygen, & reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosophate.
 
Dark Reaction:  PGAL yields RDP & glucose.
 
Cellular Respiration - Aerobic:
 
Glycolysis: Pyruvic acid will yield acetic acid & ?????????????  (The answer is below)
 
Kreb's Cycle:  Citric Acid will yield carbon dioxide, energy, hydrogen, & ????? (The answer is below)
 
 
Answers to above: 
 
Pyruvic acid -----> acetic acid & carbon dioxide.
 
Citric acid -----> carbon dioxide, hydrogen, energy, & oxaloacetic acid.
 
Look over fermentation.
 
Carboydrates:  C, H, O, sugars, starches,
    monosaccharides - glucose, fructose.
    disaccharide - sucrose
    polysaccharide - cellulose
 
Protein: C,H,O,N, building blocks are amino acids.  Polypeptides.  Tripeptides.
 
Lipids: fats, C,H,O.
 
Nucleic Acids: DNA & RNA
 
DNA:
 
   Work of  Pauling, Watson, Crick, Wilkins,
   Double Helix.  Sugar is deoxyribose.
   Nitrogen Bases: A-T, G-C
   Triplet Code
   DNA Replication
   Protein Synthesis
 
RNA:
 
   1 strand, ribose, no thymine, has Uracil (U)
 
Genetic Engineering:  
 
   direct manipulation of a genetic code.
 
   Cloning - forming a genetically identical organism from an original one.  "Dolly the sheep". 
 
   Recombinant DNA Technology - combining portions of the DNA molecules from 2 or more individuals.  Ecoli DNA with human gene for insulin production ---> Ecoli that can produce human insulin.  This Ecoli is a Transgenic Organism - containing DNA from 2 or more species.
 
The Functioning Plant:
 
Vascular - having tubes (xylem, phloem) running through their leaves, roots, & stems.
 
Leaf - Diagram: upper & lower epidermis, stomata & guard cells, cuticle, Mesophyll: columnar layer & spongy layer, both with chloroplasts - sites of photosynthesis.  Air spaces. Transpiration.
 
Root - Root cap (protection), root tip (cell division, growth), cortex (storage), vascular cylinder (tubes).  Epidermis.  Root hairs - increase surface area & thus absorption. Tap & fibrous roots.
 
Stem - Diagram: Woody Stem.  Lenticels (openings in bark).  Terminal & Lateral Buds.  Scale Scar.  Leaf Scar.  Meristem - growth tissue.  Ex. cambium.  Xylem - carry water.  Phloem - carry food.
 
Transpiration - Cohesion Theory.
 
Tropisms - plant responses to stimuli.  Thigmo - touch (Venus Fly Trap), Photo (light).
 
Functioning Animal - Skeletal, Muscular, Integumentary, & Nervous Systems - A few topics to review:
 
Skeletal: 206 bones in human body
 
Axial & appendicular skeletons
 
Key bones: Ex. radius, femur, ulna
 
Bone marrow ---> blood cells
 
Joints: moveable - hinge (elbow), ball & socket (shoulder).  Non-moveable - sutures of skull.
 
Protect, support, movement, blood cell formation.
 
Muscular: Contraction, movement.
 
Skeletal muscle - on bones, striated voluntary, produces most of the body's heat.
 
Cardiac muscle - in heart, striated involuntary.
 
Smooth muscle - organs, blood vessels, non-striated, spindle-shaped fibers.
 
Integumentary: skin - protection from infection, internal damage, heat regulation.
 
Upper epidermis - dead cells, keratinized, waterproof.  Lower epidermis - alive, cell reproduction occurring.
 
Dermis
 
Nervous: Neurons - nerve cells.  Dendrites.  Cell body.  Axon.  Synapse.
 
Nerve Impulse: electrochemical.
 
CNS: brain & spinal cord.
 
Brain: cerebrum - largest part, thinking, memory, all conscious functions.  Cerebellum - reflexes, muscle coordination.  Stem - breathing, heart rate.  "Reptilian", "Primitive".
 
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS):
 
Eye: vision
 
Light ---->cornea ----->Lens (focuses light on retina - receptors (rods, cones)----> nerve impulse ----> Optic Nerve ----> Occipital Lobe of brain ----> Vision.
 
Ear: hearing
 
External - Middle - Inner
 
Sound waves (vibrations) ---> pinna ---> ear canal --->tympanic membrane (ear drum) ---> 3 ossicles ( malleus, incus, stapes) ---> fluid in cochlea (to hair cells - receptors for sound) ---> auditory nerve --- Temporal Lobe of brain ---> hearing.
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 


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