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Honors Biology 2 Review Topics


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Links to anatomy & physiology text chapters & other resources

Intro. to Anatomy:  Chapter 1
Anatomical position - standing up, arms at your sides, palms forward.
Levels of Organization:  chemicals --> organelles--> cells --> tissues --> organs --> systems --> organism
Systems - some examples:
Cardiovascular - heart, vessels, transport
Integumentary - skin, protection, temperature regulation
Respiratory - lungs, trachea, breathing, gas exchange
superior - inferior,   medial - lateral,  dorsal - ventral
proximal - distal, deep - superficial
sural - calf,  patellar - knee, cervical - neck, axillary - armpit,
sagittal, midsagittal, frontal (coronal), transverse (horizontal)
Dorsal ---> cranial - brain & spinal - spinal cord.
Ventral --> Thoracic --> mediastinal - trachea, thymus
                                 --> pericardial - heart
                                 --> pleural - lungs
            -->  Abdominopelvic --> abdominal - stomach
                                             --> pelvic - bladder
Diaphragm - large muscle, separates the thoracic from the abdominopelvic cavity.
Homeostasis - process whereby the body tries to maintain a relatively constant internal environment.  W.B. Cannon's "Wisdom of the body".
     > Negative feedback - homeostatic, healthy
     > Positive feedback - non-homeostatic, unhealthy
Some Chemistry You Might Want To Look Over:
Big Bang - 15 billion years ago, singularity, exploded, hot, universe expanding (Hubble - red shift), cooled - condensed forming stars & planets (solar systems), which formed galaxies.  Supported by Wilson's background radiation.  Drake Equation (intelligent life)
String Theory - strings: vibrating loops of energy, form quarks & electrons.  Proton - 2 up & 1 down quark, Neutron - 2 down & 1 up quark. 
Atoms: protons (positive, nucleus), neutrons (neutral, nucleus), electrons (negative, orbit, determine behavior/bonding).
Atomic # (protons), Atomic mass (protons & neutrons), Ions-have donated or accepted electrons, charged, Isotopes, Molecular & structural formulas, Bonding (ionic, covalent), Chem. reactions (synthesis, decomposition, reversible), Enzymes, substrate, Lock & Key Theory, pH (add base - pH increases, Buffer - prevents significant pH variation - How?),Inorganic Compounds (no carbon, water), Organic Compounds: carbohydrates (monosaccharides - glucose, disaccharides - sucrose, polysaccharides - starch, cellulose), lipids (fats, fatty acids & glycerol), proteins (100 or more amino acids), nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, nucleotides).
Cell Structure Review:
Cell Theory: The cell is the basic unit of structure & function in all organisms.  All cells come from pre-existing cells - Biogenesis.
Mitochondria - powerhouses, elongated, cristae, muscle, sperm
Golgi - secrete glycoproteins, cisternae
SER - no ribosomes, RER - have ribosomes
Cilia - short-hair-like projections, trachea
Flagella - long hair-like projections, sperm
Ribosomes - spherical, free or on ER, protein synthesis
Nucleoli - produce mRNA
Nucleus - surrounded by nuclear membrane (with pores), genetic material, controls metabolism.
Centrosome - has 2 centrioles, movement of chromosomes during mitosis.
Microvilli - cell membrane extensions, absorption of extracellular materials.
Plant Cell: chloroplasts, cell wall, large vacuole
Animal Cell:  centrosome, lysosomes, small or no vacuole
Fluid-Mosaic Model of Cell Membrane Structure:
Potato-shaped proteins intermittently found in a mass of double-tailed phospholipids.
DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis, Genetic Engineering:
DNA: Watson & Crick - double helix, building blocks = nucleotides, deoxyribose - sugar, A - T, G - C. 
RNA: single strand, ribose - sugar, no T, has U (Uracil) instead.
Protein Synthesis
> Transcription - the genetic code for a particular protein is "transcribed" from a portion of the DNA molecule in the nucleus to messenger RNA (mRNA), which leaves through a nuclear pore & attaches to the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) on the surface of a ribosome, where it acts as a template for the attachment of amino acids carried over by transfer RNA (tRNA) in a process called Translation.
> Review codon (triplet code), anti-codon, & stop codon.
Genetic Engineering - changes DNA through direct manipulation.
Restriction Enzymes - cut DNA at particular points.
Recombinant DNA - DNA formed from the combination of portions of 2 or more different DNA molecules.
Look at your Genetic Engineering Outline, notes, & labs & review:
transgenic organism (ex. Ecoli with human insulin gene), Gel Electrophoresis, DNA Sequencing, DNA Fingerprinting, Human Genome Project (completed 2001, 3 billion base pairs, 30,000 genes), Gene Therapy, Cloning (reproductive, therapeutic), & Genetically Engineered Foods.
Cell Division:  Mitosis - exact doubling & splitting of the nucleus, yielding 2 identical nuclei in 1 cell.  Cytokinesis - splitting of the cytoplasm, yielding 2 daughter cells.  Allows for growth & repair.
Basic Stages of Mitosis:
Interphase - "resting stage", chromatin is visible, DNA replicates forming 2 chromatids attached by a centromere.
Prophase - In an animal cell, the centrosome splits into 2 centrioles, one of which goes to one pole & one to the other pole of the cell with spindle fibers in between, chromosomes become shorter, thicker, & visible & attach to the spindle fibers.
Metaphase - Nucleoli & nuclear membrane dissolve, chromosome pairs line up at the equatorial plate.
Anaphase - Chromosome pairs split, with one member of each pair going to 1 pole & the other member to the opposite pole, guided by the spindle fibers.
Telophase - Chromosomes become diffuse & form chromatin again, spindle dissolves, nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes, & the cell now has 2 identical nuclei.  THE END OF MITOSIS.
Cytoplasm splits after mitosis, resulting in 2 daughter cells, each with an identical nucleus.
Development:  zygote (fertilized egg) goes through cell division many times forming a ball of identical cells (blastula).  These cells continue to divide & then differentiate (certain segments of the DNA functions in each cell, causing it to become muscle, nerve, bone, etc) forming an embryo.  The embryo developes into a fetus & then is born.
Some topics to think about before your midterm exam:
anatomy - structure       physiology - function   thorax-chest
ocular      objectives      diaphragm - adjusts light       medial - midline
proximal - near pt. of origin    pathology - disease    
kinetic energy - motion     water - most common molecule 
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen      atoms     electrons   protons
neutrons    Big Bang Theory     String Theory    Bonding-ionic, covalent
radioactive - spontaneously breakdown     pH     buffer   semipermeable
cell membrane-Fluid Mosaic Model    cell wall - cellulose
Cell Theory - Schleidon & Schwann    ribosomes --> proteins
amino acids    mitochondria - powerhouses, energy   prokaryotic cells
eukaryotic cells   Golgi - packaging glycoproteins    RER   SER
anabolism - build up, synthesis    catabolism - break down
irritability - respond to stimuli    isotonic solution - same
hypertonic - higher    mitotic spindle - made of microtubules  diffusion
osmosis   active transport    mitosis   cytokinesis  genetic engineering 
epithelium - closely packed cells   Cartilage - hyaline, elastic, fibro
Bone - compact, spongy    Bones of body   Sutures of skull
Muscles - origin, insertion, action    A band   I band   sarcomere
Sliding Filament Theory   Gene Therapy   DNA   RNA
transgenic organism    restriction enzymes
Neurons, Action Potential, Reflex Arc:
Neuroglia - support, protect. Ex. Astrocytes
Neuron - general structure: dendrites (carry impulse toward the cell body), axon hillock, axon (carries impulse away from the cell body), axon terminal.
Neurons classified by: structure (unipolar, bipolar, multi) or function (sensory, Inter {associative}, motor).
Action Potential (nerve impulse, AP) - Resting membrane potential (cell Polarized) ---> Stimulus ----> changes permeability of cell membrane -----------> Na ions enter ----> Depolarization (beginning of AP) ----> AP is self-propagating ---->  directly behind AP is Repolarization.
Synapse - where the axon terminal of one neuron is close to the dendrite of the adjacent neuron.  Pre-synaptic membrane ------> Synaptic Cleft --------->  Post-synaptic membrane.  Synaptic vesicles (with neurotransmitter {ACh}). 
Reflex Arc - receptor neuron (special sensory) ---> sensory neurons -------> Interneurons -----> Motor neurons -----> to a muscle or gland (Effector).
Saltatory Response - only in myelinated neurons, impulse jumps from one node of Ranvier to the next.  Speeds up AP.
Central Nervous System
Meninges - coverings of brain & spinal cord
   Dura mater - directly under skull
   Arachnoid - web
   Pia mater - on surface of brain & cord
Cerebrum - Lobes (frontal, parietal, temporal, occiptal)
   Cerebral cortex - outer, gray matter, convolutions (gyri)
   Corpus callosum - link between right & left hemispheres
   Fissures - Longitudinal, Rolando, & Sylvius
Cerebellum - Arbor Vitae (Tree of Life), equilibrium, reflexes, muscle coordination.
Brain Stem ("Primitive", "Reptilian")
   Medulla - respiration, BP, heart rate
   Pons - skilled acts
Spinal Cord - sensory & motor
Spinal Nerves - 31 pair (mixed nerves)
Cranial Nerves - 12 pair (#, name, function)
Autonomic Nervous System - Parasympathetic, Sympathetic
Internal Pig:  Some items you want to think about:
Incisions - ventral surface, using scalpel - through skin, then back over again through muscle: down throat region, chest, abdomen, around umbilical cord, and down behind hind legs.
Trachea - windpipe, has cartilage rings, epiglottis over glottis.
Diaphragm - large sheet of muscle separating the thoracic & the abdominal cavities.
Heart - mammalian (4 chambered), upper chambers (atria) covered by flaps (auricles) & lower chambers (ventricles).
Uvula - extends from soft palate in  humans, but not in pigs.
Esophagus - tube, posterior to the trachea, carries food to the stomach (had bile salts, but no food).
Small Intestine - had villi (microscopic finger-like projections that increase the surface area & thus the absorption ability of the SI).  Mesentery between loops of SI.
Liver - large, brown, with gall bladder behind it.
Kidneys - have ureters to carry urine to bladder. 
Eye & Vision - Think about:
3 coats of eyeball:  1) Sclera - outer, tough, white,               2) Choroid - pigmented, vascular, 3) Retina - inner, photoreceptors
Photoreceptors: Rods: most numerous, pick up dim light, Pigment is rhodopsin (breaksdown into scotopsin & retinine {derivative of vitamin A})  Cones: mostly in fovea centralis, Pigment is iodopsin, which breaks down in bright light.
Extrinsic Muscles: move eyes up, down, left, right.  Ex. Superior rectus.
Iris: pigmented, controls size of pupil (dilates for dim light & distant object, constricts for bright light & near object).
Lens: focuses light on retina.  Helmholtz's Theory of Accomodation of the lens - For near object: ciliary muscle contracts & lens bulges, & for distant object: ciliary muscle relaxes & lens flattens.
Blind Spot: optic disk, no rods or cones, where optic nerve leaves the retina.
Cornea: thick, tough, transparent, in front of eyeball.
Conjunctiva:  thin, mucous membrane over cornea.
Light rays are refracted by cornea, lens (to greatest extent), and humors (aqueous, vitreous).  Parallel light rays converge when they pass through a convex lens, & diverge when they pass through a concave lens.
Anterior & Posterior Chambers, Optic chiasma, Occipital Lobe - Where ?  What ?
Nearsightedness: myopia
Farsightedness: hyperopia
Nutrition - Some things to think about:
Inorganic - water: universal solvent, chem. reactions, protoplasm, sweat.  Fe (iron) - hemoglobin.
Organic - Carbohydrates: monosaccharides ----> disaccharides, yield 4.1 kcal/gram.  Lipids (fats) -->9.3 kcal/gram, Protein (100 or more amino acids linked) -> 4.1 kcal/gram.  Vitamins - not usually made by the body, needed in small amounts.  C, K, A.
Food Guide Pyramid: Food groups - servings/day.
Balanced Diet:
Enzymes- Biological catalysts.  React with particular substrates.  See earlier chapter on chemistry.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR): when you are at rest, the # of calories needed to stay alive (breathing, HR, kidneys).  Ave. = 1400 - 1700 Calories/day.
Total Metabolic Rate (TMR): # of kcal/day used when you are active.

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